English for CLAT : Practice Passage #18

eng for clat

In the rich tapestry of India’s historical journey towards independence, the concept of composite nationalism emerged as a unifying force that transcended religious, linguistic, and regional differences. As a nation striving to break free from the shackles of colonial rule, India witnessed the convergence of diverse ideologies and movements under the banner of a shared national identity.

Composite nationalism, at its core, represents the idea that the Indian nation is a mosaic of various cultures, religions, and communities. It rejects the notion of a singular, monolithic identity and instead celebrates the pluralistic nature of Indian society. This concept gained prominence during the struggle for independence, as leaders sought to forge a united front against the common enemy – British colonialism.

One of the key architects of composite nationalism was Mahatma Gandhi, whose philosophy of non-violence and religious inclusivity became the bedrock of the Indian National Congress. Gandhi’s vision extended beyond political independence; he envisioned a harmonious society where Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, and people of all faiths could coexist with mutual respect and understanding. His emphasis on ‘Sarvodaya’ or the welfare of all reflected the spirit of composite nationalism, urging Indians to rise above religious and caste divisions.

The partition of India in 1947, leading to the creation of Pakistan, tested the resilience of composite nationalism. The communal violence and mass migrations that accompanied the partition threatened the fabric of religious harmony. However, leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru continued to champion the idea of a secular and inclusive India in the face of challenges.

The Constitution of India, adopted in 1950, solidified the principles of composite nationalism. It enshrined the values of equality, liberty, and fraternity, providing a framework that transcended religious affiliations. The idea of a secular state, where individuals were free to practice and profess their religions without fear of discrimination, became a guiding principle.

Post-independence, India witnessed the emergence of a vibrant democracy where people from diverse backgrounds participated in the nation-building process. The linguistic reorganization of states in the 1950s was a testament to the accommodation of regional aspirations within the framework of composite nationalism. While languages became a basis for state boundaries, the overarching national identity remained paramount.

The 1990s saw challenges to the idea of composite nationalism with the rise of identity politics and communal tensions. However, the democratic ethos prevailed, and the Indian state continued to uphold the principles of pluralism and inclusivity. The resilience of composite nationalism was evident in the ability of the Indian society to absorb and integrate diverse cultural, linguistic, and religious expressions.

In contemporary India, the concept of composite nationalism remains relevant as the nation navigates complex social, political, and economic challenges. The inclusive vision of leaders like B.R. Ambedkar, who fought against caste discrimination, and the ongoing efforts to address issues of social justice underscore the commitment to a nation that embraces its diversity.

In conclusion, composite nationalism stands as a defining feature of India’s historical narrative. It represents the collective aspiration of a diverse population to forge a shared identity that transcends divisions. As India continues its journey, the principles of composite nationalism remain crucial in fostering unity, diversity, and the spirit of a truly inclusive nation.

  1. What does the concept of composite nationalism in India emphasize?
    1. A) The dominance of a singular cultural identity
    1. B) The celebration of religious exclusivity
    1. C) The unity of diverse cultures, religions, and communities
    1. D) The promotion of linguistic homogeneity
  2. Who among the historical figures is highlighted as a key architect of composite nationalism in the passage?
    1. A) Jawaharlal Nehru
    1. B) B.R. Ambedkar
    1. C) Mahatma Gandhi
    1. D) Muhammad Ali Jinnah
  3. Which event tested the resilience of composite nationalism in India, according to the passage?
    1. A) The adoption of the Constitution in 1950
    1. B) The linguistic reorganization of states in the 1950s
    1. C) The partition of India in 1947
    1. D) The rise of identity politics in the 1990s
  4. What guiding principle is attributed to Mahatma Gandhi in the context of composite nationalism?
    1. A) The promotion of violence for political gain
    1. B) The welfare of all, irrespective of religious affiliations
    1. C) The establishment of a theocratic state
    1. D) The imposition of a monolithic cultural identity
  5. Which constitutional value solidified the principles of composite nationalism in post-independence India?
    1. A) Autocracy
    1. B) Theocracy
    1. C) Secularism
    1. D) Oligarchy


  1. C) The unity of diverse cultures, religions, and communities
  2. C) Mahatma Gandhi
  3. C) The partition of India in 1947
  4. B) The welfare of all, irrespective of religious affiliations
  5. C) Secularism

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