Practice Passage #23: Legal for CLAT

Consider the following laws and answer MCQs based on these.

Indian Penal Code (IPC), Section 420: This section deals with cheating and dishonestly inducing delivery of property. It is often invoked in cases involving fraud or deception where an individual is accused of deceiving another person or entity to gain property or monetary advantage.

Indian Contract Act, 1872, Section 17: This section defines ‘fraud’ in the context of contractual agreements. It covers cases where a party to a contract deceives another, leading to damage or injury.

Specific Relief Act, 1963, Section 34: This section allows a person to seek a court declaration on any legal right as to property or status. It is commonly used in property disputes or any civil matter where a person’s legal rights are in question and a clear legal declaration is needed.

  1. Situation: An individual purchases an antique necklace based on the seller’s assurance of authenticity. It later turns out to be a fake. Which legal principle is most directly challenged?

A) Misrepresentation in a contract

B) Fraudulent transaction

C) Breach of contract

D) Criminal conspiracy

2. Situation: A contractor agrees to construct a building following specific safety standards but fails to do so, leading to structural issues. The building owner seeks legal action. What is the primary legal concern here?

A) Non-compliance with safety standards

B) Breach of contractual terms

C) Criminal negligence

D) Fraud and deception

3. Situation: A homeowner sells a property but conceals information about a legal dispute related to the land. Upon discovering this, the buyer wants to nullify the sale. What legal ground does the buyer have?

A) Misrepresentation of facts

B) Non-disclosure agreement violation

C) Breach of property law

D) Criminal deception

4. Situation: A startup falsely claims to have a patent for its technology to attract investors. The investors later sue the startup. What is the primary accusation against the startup?

A) Violation of patent law

B) Misrepresentation and fraud

C) Breach of investor trust

D) Unfair trade practices

5. Situation: A landowner sells a piece of land with forged documents. The buyer, unaware of the forgery, later faces legal challenges. What is the primary legal issue for the buyer?

A) Entering a contract under false pretenses

B) Owning property with disputed title

C) Victim of fraud

D) Involvement in property laundering


  1. Answer: B) Fraudulent transaction
    • Explanation: The situation involves a seller providing false information about the authenticity of an item, which falls under fraudulent activities, misleading the buyer.
  2. Answer: B) Breach of contractual terms
    • Explanation: The contractor failing to adhere to agreed safety standards in construction breaches the terms set in the contract with the building owner.
  3. Answer: A) Misrepresentation of facts
    • Explanation: Concealing information about a legal dispute when selling property is a misrepresentation of facts, which can lead to nullification of the sale agreement.
  4. Answer: B) Misrepresentation and fraud
    • Explanation: By claiming to have a patent that doesn’t exist, the startup misrepresented its status to investors, constituting fraud.
  5. Answer: C) Victim of fraud
    • Explanation: The buyer, unknowingly purchasing land with forged documents, is a victim of fraud perpetrated by the seller.

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